财经快讯 财经 苗族工艺品大师风采录


  • The Master of Hmong Crafts Personal Highlig

  •   感悟仰阿莎神话真谛 拾回天王星历法埃进

  •   Appreciate the true meaning of the Hmong myth of YangAsha and

  •   Restudy the Uranus calendar used by Hmong people which called Gheib jit in Hmong language

  •   ——记中国创世历法的自觉探索人李国章 吴兴权

  •   Recorded by the self-conscious explorer of China’s Genesis Calendar,

  •   Li Guozhang, Wu Xingquan

  • 一、李国章简历及业绩

      I. Li Guozhangs resume and achievements

  •   1956年11月,李国章出生在雷山县报德乡碧岣苗寨。这里,周边四面连山,屋后有大枫树,门口有四方塘,屋正面的四个窗口是八卦窗。

  •   Li Guozhang was born in a Hmong village called Bixun which is located in the Baode town, Leishan County in southeast of Guizhou in November 1956. His house is surrounded by mountains. There is a big maple tree behind the house, with a square shaped pond in front of the house, as well as, four eight-diagram shaped windows in the middle of the house.

  •   1973年7月,李国章初中毕业回乡务农,又在山寨整整生活了5年。1978年10考入贵州省供销学校,1981年7月毕业,于同年8月分配到雷山县物价局工作。此后,历经检察院、政法委、综治办、法院、调处办工作。这一切工作经历,似乎与家乡的环境无关,也似与后来自觉研究的开天创世天文历法无关。

  •   In July 1973, Li Guozhang graduated from junior high school and returned to his hometown to work in agriculture where he lived for five years entirely after graduation. In October 1978, he was admitted to the Supply and Marketing School of Guizhou Province and graduated in July 1981 and assigned to the Price Bureau in Leishan County in August of the same year. He also worked in the Procuratorate, the Political Committee, the General Affairs office, the courts, the Comprehensive Administration office successively since 1981. All the work experience seems to have nothing to do with the environment of his hometown, but also with his research for the Hmong Genesis calendars.

  •   2006年6月任中国民族博物馆苗族文化雷山研究中心主任。可以说,李国章是一位自学成才和从政法部门走出来的自觉研究苗族文化,特别是将侦查与审案方法自觉运用于研究苗族天文历法的非墙院非科班学者。2007年1月后,改任非领导职务,专事苗族文化研究;2016年6月县人民政府任命为雷山县非物质文化遗产专家委员会委员;非物质文化遗产项目《苗族天文历法》县级代表性传承人。

  •   In June 2006, Li Guozhang was appointed as the director of the Hmong Culture Research Center in Leishan County of the Chinese National Museum of Ethnology. He is the one who has studied the Hmong culture self-consciously and he was also an official worker that had worked in the Political Committee before. Especially, he is the untutored researcher for the Hmong astronomic calendar and combined the research methods of investigation and adjudication. After January 2007, he was transferred to a non-leadership position and specializing in the study of Hmong culture. In June 2016, he was appointed by the Leishan government as the member of the Experts Committee on Intangible Cultural Heritage of Leishan County and the representative inheritor of the intangible cultural heritage project called the Hmong astronomic calendar.

  •   2016年9月注册创办《苗族工艺品》平台手机终端(app);2018年1月注册创办《苗族工艺品》平台网络(电脑),并取得计算机软件版权。

  •   The Hmong Crafts application (APP) in mobile phone terminal was registered in September 2016 and the Hmong Crafts network website in computer was established in January 2018. Besides, the copyright of computer software was obtained.

  •   2017年8月4日注册“雷山县三皇五帝日月文化研究创意中心”。

  •   On August 4, 2017, the Cultural Research and Creative Center of the Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns of Leishan County in Guizhou Province was registered.

  •   从2004年起利用业务时间开始编书著作,截至2018年4月30日止,有如下著作与版权成果:

  •   Li Guozhang started writing books in his spare time from the year 2004 and there are the following books and copyright results by the end of April in 2018.

  • ㈠已出版著作:

      (i) The Published works:

  •   1.个人文化人类学论文专著《雷公山苗族传统文化》25万字,贵州民族出版社2006年10月出版。

  •   1. The monograph of anthropology by individual, called The Traditional Culture of the Hmong people lived in Leigongshan. There are 250,000 words in total and it was published by Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House in October 2006.

  •   2.与雷山苗族学者文锡美、文远荣编著《报德苗族》(为第一主编)35万字,贵州人民出版社2006年10月出版。该书是一部报德苗族社区调查的历史与文化研究成果,2008年10月,获全州第五次哲学社会科学优秀成果二等奖。

  •   2. The book, Hmong in Baode Town, is the cooperation results with the Hmong scholar Wen Ximei and Wen Yuanrong who are the local men in Leishan County, Li Guozhang is the first author. The book is about the investigation results of the history and Hmong cultural research in Baode town. There are 350,000 words in total and was published by Guizhou People’s Press in October 2006 and won the second prize in the fifth outstanding results of philosophy and social sciences that hosted by the Qiandongnan State in October 2008.

  •   3.执行主编《雷山县乡土文化教材》,2008年10月,贵州人民出版社出版。

  •   3.The book, Local Culture Textbook In Leishan County, was published by Guizhou People’s Press in October 2008 and Li Guozhang is the executive editor.

  •   4.联合编著《雷山屯堡文化》(为第一作者),24万字,2017年2月,贵州人民出版社出版。

  •   4. The book, Tunpu Culture in Leishan, is the co-authored work with others and Li Guozhang is the first author. It has 240,000 words in total and was published by Guizhou People’s Press in February 2017.

  •  ㈡送出版书稿:

  • 《中国古代开天历法研究》《西江千户苗寨十二月太阳历》《中国古代苗族迁徙与稻作发明》、与侯天江编著《雷山非物质文化遗产》《雷山节日文化》等。

  •  (ⅱ)The Publishing works:

  • Study of the Ancient Chinese Genesis Calendar, the Twelve Solar Calendar of the thousand Hmong families’ village Xijiang town, the Migration and the rice cultivation in ancient Hmong people. Besides, he is co-compile with the Hmong researcher Hou Tianjiang for the books, the Intangible Cultural Heritage in Leishan Count, the Festival Culture in Leishan County and so on.

  • ㈢正在修编稿:

  • 《苗族万年历》,为苗族二十八宿与十二生肖口头历纪汉文字历书。从1911年~2100年,约65万字万工具书稿。

  • (iii) The Revised books:

  • Hmong people’s perpetual calendar, it is a literal almanac that ranges from the year 1911to 2100 and almost 650,000 words in total. Also, it was recorded according to the Hmong 28 constellations and the 12 Chinese Zodiacs, which were commonly used in ancient China.

  •   李国章的故乡——雷山县郎德镇也利村碧岣苗寨

      Li Guozhangs hometown – Bixun Hmong village, Langde Town, Leishan County

  •  (四)在编著《西江千户苗寨志》

  • (联合编著第一作者)。

  •   (ⅳ)The compiling books: Monograph on the Thousand Hmong families, Xijiang Town, It is a co-authored work and Li Guozhang is the first author.

  •  ㈤策划编著中国苗族文化中心丛书

  • ——《雷山苗族理辞与十月太阳历》《雷山苗族妇女穿戴文化》《东方苗岭斗牛经》《大坪山历史文化调查研究》等。

  •  (ⅴ) A series of books on Chinese Hmong culture:

  • The Hmong Folk Regulations and the Ten Months Solar Calendar in Leishan, The Hmong Women’s Clothing and Wearing in Leishan, The tactics for bullfighting in East of the Hmong Land, The Investigation and Research for the Historical Culture of Dapingshan and so on.

  •  二、开天创世历法自觉探索人

  •   Ⅱ. The consciously explorer for the ancient Genesis calendar

  •   山上古树屹立,林木苍翠,木楼参差,炊烟轻飞;山下清流曲折而去,山道弯弯蜿蜒,花香鸟鸣,这就是山水相依的“树巅上苗寨”——雷山县郎德镇碧岣苗寨。李国章正是从这个雷公山下苗寨里走出来的学者,他高大壮实、博学多才。也许是远古的召唤,也许是这方山水人情灌输了他不能舍去的民族情结,让他满怀激情脚踏这方厚土,耕耘出一片新天地。

  •   There are standing trees, lush woods in the mountains top and crossed with stilted buildings and chimney smoke. While under the mountains, there are crooked streams, winding paths, blooming flowers and twittered birds. Bixu Hmong village in Langde Town, Leishan County is the picturesque village, which is embraced by the verdant trees and limpid streams. Also, it is the hometown for Li Guozhang who is a tall and strong Hmong man and brilliant Hmong scholar. For the longing to ancient history or the feelings of homesickness, Li Guozhang has a strong sentiment for Hmong culture and entirely devotes himself to the research.

  •   在担任中国民族博物馆苗族文化雷山研究中心主任期间,他步入山寨村落开展调查,走邻县、跨州外进行采访,前前后后做了大量的工作,不仅收集了详实的资料,也在工作过程中丰富了自己的思想和观点。扎实的理论基础与材料的有力支撑,形成了对苗族文化历史的真知灼见。

  •   During the time Li Guozhang as the director of the Hmong Culture Research Center in Leishan County of the Chinese National Museum of Ethology, he conducted investigations in villages, visited neighboring counties and conducted interviews across state boundaries. He did a lot of work, not only collecting detailed information, but also enriching his own thoughts and views in the process of work. Solid theoretical foundation and material support form a true understanding of miao culture and history.

  •   如关于雷山苗家人头上佩戴一朵花习俗的解读,李国章在长期苗族天文历法研究基础上,提出了自己的观点。他说:“苗家妇女发髻上佩戴花朵,是苗家人用花朵来替代对太阳崇拜的一种表达方式。”古代苗家人认为,头发是父母所生所给,是生命的重要组成部分,不能随意剪掉。若犯罪之人,如果要对其施予“肉刑”的,则可以以割发的方式来替代之。苗家人对头发的重视程度,这是之后衍变成将头发捆成发髻,并为之戴花朵的前提。由此,古代苗家妇女们在劳作时披头散发而不便于劳作,为了保护这一缕青丝不遭损坏,她们就把头发束起,挽成发髻扎起,利用绳子、梳子、发夹、银簪等来进行加固。怎样捆扎起才好看?继而她们又将简单的捆扎进行一番修饰,于是,苗家妇女就运用图腾崇拜及审美原则这两种方式,来对自己的发髻进行修饰。“发髻正面花朵即是太阳,发髻后端梳子即是月亮。”李国章说。

  •   一朵大银花。这种服饰张扬自己是古代占日占月帝王的后裔

  •   Li Guozhang explained that there is a totem combined the images of the sun and moon in Danjiang Hmong girls Great Silver Horn. Besides, there is a big silver flower in the center of the lower ring. This kind of costume boasts that they are the descendants of the ancient emperor of the sun and the moon.

  •   For example, on the interpretation of the custom of Leishan Hmong s family wearing a flower on their head, Li Guozhang put forward his own views on the basis of long-term research on the astronomy and calendar of Hmong people. “The flowers is a kind of method expressing the Hmong people’s respect to the sun when Hmong female put it on their hair.” In ancient times, the Hmong people insist on the view that hair is the most important part of a body due to the traditional filial piety that hair is given by their parents and can’t be cut out at will. Thus, the criminals in ancient time can cut their hair for punishment to instead the corporal punishment. Under this background, we can see the importance of the hair to Hmong people and this is a precondition to Hmong females’ chignon and the flowers on their hair. Therefore, we can infer that it is non-convenient for long hair Hmong females when they are laboring in the fields. They wore their hairs into a chignon in order to protect it and put the hair rope, comb, hairpin, silver hair clasp to fix the hair patterns. Hmong females also care about the hairstyle, so they will use the decorations that combine the totem worship and aesthetic views to beautify the chignon. The flowers in front of the chignon symbolize the sun and the comb which put back of the chignon symbolizes the moon. This is the final style after Hmong females decorate their chignons, Li Guozhang said.

  •   在远古不同时期,佩花一朵不仅仅起到装饰作用,而且还有它应有的作用—-历法功能,具体体现就是“花朵有几瓣就代表一年中有几个月”。古代苗人的历法是因地域而定,他们崇尚大自然,以当地适宜生长的植物开花的花瓣数来历法,以期与大自然生长的这些开花植物达到长寿与生生繁衍的目的。这在学术上称为物候历或花鸟历。此前有学者研究,苗族妇女佩花仅有崇尚自然、进行历法和尚美装饰的意义,而经过他近3年来的研究才发现:不仅仅是崇尚自然与历法,而且还有崇拜太阳的图腾意义。“说深一点,这是苗族‘太阳历’的文化遗存。”雷山的苗家人认为,人的心理行为与身体功能都必须服从太阳的调控。现今,虽然苗家妇女们的佩花已失去了“历法”功能与意义,只是一种爱美与潜意识的表现。信仰、历法、劳动与装饰的共同作用,形成了苗家女子对发髻修饰的习俗和样貌。

  •   In different ancient times, a flower that is put on the hair is not only the decoration, but also as a special calendar. Specifically speaking, the flower petal’s number stands for the month in a year. For ancient Hmong people, their calendar is according to their geography. They worship the nature and use the indigenous flower petals’ number as calendar for the purpose of longevity and reproduction. This is known academically as the Phenological Calendar or Nature Calendar. There are the researches by the former researchers that indicate that Hmong female who puts a flower in their hair is only for worshiping the nature, using as calendar and beautifying, while Li Guozhang insists that besides the three reasons above, it also worship to the totem of the sun after three years research. What’s more, it is the evidence for the cultural relics of the Hmong people’s Solar Calendar. The Hmong in Leishan believes that both people’s psychological behaviors and physical manners must obey the regulations of sun. Nowadays, although the flowers put on the Hmong female’s hair has nothing to do with the calendar, it is only used as a method of beautifying and expression of sub-consciousness. The combination of faith, calendar, labor and decoration formed the custom and appearance of Hmong women to decorate their buns.

  •   苗家女戴花的释义,只是国章苗族文化研究的冰山一角。对于芦笙起源于天杆太阳木;笙鼓舞右向左行是遵循行星运行方向的祭天舞蹈;太极是地球运运的平面图;一分为二的阴阳、五行、八卦诠释的是大地的气温变化规律,而生成哲学则是一分为三的生物繁衍规律,也都十分精辟。类似释说,不胜枚举。

  •   The interpretation of the flower for Hmong females is just the tip of the iceberg in the study of the research for Hmong culture by Li Guozhang. He also has researches for many topics, such as the reed-pipe wind instrument originated from the sun wood of the sky pole which is a kind of wood, the local dance called Shengguwu is a kind of sacrificing dance that follows the direction of the planets movement as right-to-left, Tai Chi is the plan of the earths rotation. The theory of one to two is to illustrate the regulations of the climates on earth, such as the theory of yin-yang, five elements and eight diagrams and the theory of one to three is the regulations of the reproduction for humans, such as the philosophy and so on. These researches above are very significant and more researches are too numerous to mention one by one on this study.

  •   李国章考察苗族腊染图纹

      Li Guozhang Investigates the Hmong Batik Patterns

  •   苗族的祖先,为了观察天文星象,制定历法,敬授民时,部落的首领们作了旷日持久的、艰苦不懈的努力。李国章通过对大量苗族创世神话和巫觋文化的研究,得出了苗族有创世历法的结论。这是国章对苗族历史文化的一大突出贡献。他著《中国古代创世历法研究》系统陈述了这一论题。

  •   When the ancestors of the Hmong people observed the astronomical signs, made the calendar and taught the people, the tribal leaders worked hard for a long time. Through the study of a large number of Hmong genesis myths and Hmong witch culture, Li Guozhang has the conclusion that the Hmong people has a Genesis Calendar. The discovery is very significant to the historical culture of the Hmong people by Li Guozhang and his research, The Study of Ancient Chinese Genesis Calendar, has presented the theory systematically.

  •   苗族在是一个没有系统文字记载历史的民族,但是很多民族文化通过非文字符号得到了记录。如苗族巫鬼观中有病鬼同名的说法,即当一个人活在世上时,他的发明、创造和成果是死后成为鬼神的代名词。当他活在世上得的病症,在他死后若有人也得同样的病症,人们就认为是他成鬼成神找上门来作崇了。所以,为了痊愈与健康,要备用他生前喜爱的物品祭献给他。例如,如果发明饲养水牛的人生前经常头痛,当其去世后,有人头痛时,就会想到是他找上门来找吃找喝,于是要备用水牛祭祀之。

  •   苗族巫师使用稻谷、米粒作为与鬼神传递信息的物证,每一组雷神都认识稻谷,都知晓米粒,这表明稻谷、米粒的在苗族历史文化中的重要地位,也说明了中国种植水稻的悠久历史。据湖南道县玉蟾岩洞文化遗址出土的碳化稻谷年代表明,中国种植水稻的历史已有12000~15000年。由此可以推断,苗族先民们观测日月星象运行规律,基本上与发明水稻种植年代同步。

  •   苗族祭雷神巫词,给人们传达了祖先观察日月星象,制定天文历法的历史进程,向人们道出了人类童年发明进步的阶梯。李国章所著《中国古代创世历法研究》,是在解读创世神话、解析苗族巫觋文化的基础上,创世天文历法研究的集大成之作。该书证明了苗族历法的存在,及其起源与发展形态,其中,苗族历法“诶进”84进制最具特色,是一种独一无二的进制算法,代表着苗族天文历法的最高成就。这些都成为苗族历法申报非物质文化遗产名录的重要理论基础,也是对之进行进行抢救与保护的具体成果。李国章的研究无论在理论上还是现实上,都极具价值与意义。

  •   The Hmong nationality has no systematic written history, but many national cultures have been recorded through non-written symbols. Such as the Hmong concept of ghosts and ghosts of the same name of the sick ghost, that is, when a person is alive in the world, his invention, creation and achievements become the pronoun of ghosts and gods after death.. When he had the disease in the world, and when someone else had the same disease after his death, it was believed that he had become a ghost and a god who came to worship him. Therefore, for the sake of healing and health, present to him what he loved in life. For example, if the buffalo was always suffering from headaches before the invention of the life, when it died and someone had a headache, it would be thought that he came to find food and drink, so he asked for a spare buffalo to sacrifice it.

  •   Hmong shamans use rice and grains of rice as physical evidence to convey messages with ghosts and gods. Each group of Thor knows rice and grains of rice, which indicates the important position of rice and grains of rice in Hmong history and culture, and also explains the long history of rice cultivation in China. According to the age of carbonized rice unearthed from yufu Cave cultural site in Daoxian County, Hunan Province, China has been cultivating rice for 12,000 ~ 15,000 years. It can be inferred that the ancestors of the Hmong nationality observed the sun and moon astrology movement rule, basically with the invention of rice planting time synchronization.

  •   Hmong worship thunder god, to convey to people the ancestors observe the sun and the moon astrology, the formulation of astronomical calendar of the historical process, to people the invention of human childhood progress ladder. The study of Ancient Chinese Creation Calendar written by Li Guozhang is a masterpiece of the study of creation astronomical calendar on the basis of interpreting creation myth and analyzing Hmong Nationalitys Wizard culture. The book has proved the existence, origin and development of the Hmong calendar. Among them, the "E-Jin" 84 decimal system of the Hmong calendar is the most distinctive. It is a unique decimal algorithm and represents the highest achievement of the Hmong astronomical calendar. All these have become the important theoretical basis for the Hmong calendar to apply for the intangible cultural heritage list, and are also the concrete results of the rescue and protection. Li Guozhangs research is of great value and significance both theoretically and practically.

  • 三、拾回天王星历法诶进

  •   Ⅲ. Restudy the Uranus calendar, E-jin, also called Gheib jit in Hmong language

  •   据李国章著《中国古代创世历法研究》,苗族历法史上有如下的计算单位:

  •   According to Li Guozhangs Study of the Ancient Chinese Genesis Calendar,

  •   there are the following calculation units in the history of the Hmong calendar:

  •   李国章太极阴阳五行八卦版权作品

  •   A Eight diagrams consist of Tai Chi, Yinyang and the five elements, which is the copyright work created by Li Guozhang

  •   1. 年,指人类所居住的地球公转周期。其附属概念有太极、阴阳、历元等。

  •   1. The unit Year refers to the period of the Earth inhabited by humans. Its ancillary concepts include Tai Chi, Yin yang, calendar and so on.

  •   2.季,在年内按物候划分的大气候变化段。它小于年大于月,表现形式为数月。

  •   2. The unit Quarter refers to the period divided by the main climates during a year. It is shorter than a year and longer than the month, in the form of months.

  •   3.月,有按物候划分的太阳月和以月亮运行周期为依据的月亮月。太阳月有五月和十月、六月和十二月;七月、八月、九月、十五月、十六月、十七月、十八月、十九月、二十月太阳历等;月亮月又分恒星月(星回月)和朔望月两种。

  •   3. The unit Month refers to the Solar Month divided by the phenology and the Lunar Month based on the moon’s cycle. The Solar Month is May and October, June and December. July, August, September, fifteenth month, sixteenth month, seventeenth month, eighteenth month, nineteenth month, twentieth month are attribute to solar calendar. Lunar month also can be divided into Sidereal Month and Synodic Month.

  •   4.节气,仍有按物候划分的太阳年历节气和以太阳年为基础以月亮运行周期为依据的朔望月节气两种。二十四、三十、六十四节气等是太阳历节气。端午节气是月亮历节气。它小于月大于日,是小气候变化段,表现形式为数日。

  •   4. The unit Terms refers to the Solar Calendar Terms divided by the phenology and the Synodic Terms based on the solar year and the cycling of the lunar moon. The 24 Solar Terms, the 30 Solar Terms, the 64 Solar Terms are belongs to the Solar Calendar Terms. Dragon-boat Festival is the Lunar Calendar Terms. It is shorter than month and longer than day. It is a short period for the changing climate and in forms of several days.

  •   5.日,有白昼日和昼夜日两种。

  •   5. The unit Day has two forms, daytime and nighttime.

  •   6.时,即时辰,在一昼夜日里分为十二等份,即一昼夜日的十二分之一。

  •   6. The unit Instant, also called “Shichen” in Chinese, it is not the same meaning as the time in nowadays. The instant in ancient times refers to twelve two-hour periods of one day and the instant is a twelfth of a day.

  •   7.亟,即一时辰的十二分之一。

  •   7. The unit “Ji” in Chinese, it refers to the one-twelfth of an instant, or“Shichen”.

  •   8.僦,即一亟的十二分之一。

  •   8. The unit “Jiu” in Chinese, it refers to the one-twelfth of a “Ji”.

  •   9.缃,即一僦的十二分之一。月、日、时、亟、僦、缃是年时间内的微观分析,还可再继续等分下去。

  •   9. The unit “Xiang” in Chinese, it refers to the one-twelfth of a “Jiu”. As you can see, the unit Month, Day, Instant, “Ji”, “Jiu”, “Xiang” are the micro analysis of a year and the division can be continual like this.

  •   10.蔸,又称埃蔸,有的译写为嘎斗,即年基础上的十二年。以十二年为计时单位,是木星历,苗族历法即枫木星历。古人认为木星运行周期是十二年,是经典的鼓社节历法。

  •   10. The unit “Dou” in Hmong language also called “E-dou”, some translator written as “Gadou”. It is kind of unit for the year, that is, twelve years on the basis of a year. There are twelve years in a unit, it is the Jupiter Calendar. The Hmong Calendar is according to the Maple Jupiter Calendar, which is kind of local calendar. The ancients thought that Jupiters orbit was twelve years, which is the calendar that the local festival named Gushe Festival according to.

  •   11.埃进,有的译为诶进或嘎进,即7个埃蔸,即84个地球年,它是天王星的运行周期。埃蔸和埃进是年时间的宏观扩展,也还可依一定规律扩展上去。

  •   11. The unit “E-jin” in Hmong language also called “Ga-jin”. It refers to seven “E-dou” or eighty-four years in nowadays. It is the cycle of Uranus. Both “E-dou” and “E-jin” are the expansion of the year and the expansion can be continual like this.

  •   前述苗族历法“诶进”八十四进制最具特色,在世界上独一无二,代表着苗天文历法的最高成就。那么,何为埃进呢?

  •   The aforementioned Hmong calendar “E-jin” which refers to eighty-four years in nowadays is the most typical one and unique in the world. It is the highest achievement in the Hmong astronomical calendar. Now, the question is what is E-jin?

  •   月亮历有朔望月和恒星月两种。朔望月平均朔望周期为29.53059日。月亮平均公转周期(恒星月)为 27.32166日。

  •   The Luna Calendar has two types of Synodic Month and Sidereal Month. The average synodic period of the Synodic Month is 29.53059 days and the average rotation period of the Lunar Month is 27.32166 days.

  •   朔望月用肉眼可视见,人人可观察行用。恒星月虽然是生育妇女的月经周期,但要观察天穹知其位置,并非人人能行之。于是,古代天文学家就将星空划分成28个区域,每个区域称为一宿或一舍,是月亮运行所在的区域,是月亮旅居的宿舍。这就是28宿的由来。因此,二十八宿历起始是恒星月历。

  •   The Synodic moon can be seen with the naked eyes and everyone can observe in this way. While the sidereal moon is the menstrual period of a woman who gives birth to, not everyone can observe the sky with naked eyes and to know the location. Therefore, the ancient astronomers divided the starry sky into 28 constellations which are the orbits of the moon, we can regard it as the dormitory of the moon when the moon revolving and each region called “yi xiu” or “yi she” in Chinese, which means the dormitory of the moon. This is the originating of the 28 constellations and it obeys the Sidereal Calendar.

  •   苗族计数恒星月之某日,用进宿称呼,天长日久,构成历辞。丹江苗族的恒星月历辞28个,依次为:

  •   1.进昊(雷鸟;角木蛟);2.勇溜(水龙;亢金龙);3.进局(竹鼠;氐土貉);4.进向(狸猫;房日免);5.梅哈(蝴蝶;心月狐);6.修溜(虎;尾火虎);7.修幼(豹;箕水豹);8.冈雕(螃蟹;斗木蟹);9.进尼(水牛;牛金牛);10.婺妪(婺女;女土蝠);11.进囊(老鼠;虚日鼠);12.把柳(燕子;危月燕);13.进北(猪;室火猪);14.勇幼(山龙;壁水貐);15.工跟(螺蛳;奎木狼);16.进撒(狗;娄金狗);17.进仰(野鸡;胃土雉);18.进该(鸡;昴日鸡);19.进泻(老鹰;毕月鸟);20.进黄(猿猴;觜火猴);21.进虾(水獭;参水猿);22.咯瓦(天鹅;井木犴);23.进仙(山羊;鬼金羊);24.冈商(蚂蜂;柳土獐);25.腌马(野马;星日马);26.冈夜(蜘蛛;张月鹿);27.进挪(蛇;翼火蛇);28.冈龚(蚯蚓;轸水蚓)。

  •   其规律是宿名为单音的,前加“进”表示,是为递进;宿名是双音的直呼其名。显然,这里还不能称为诶进,但它是埃进的基础。

  •   The Hmong people is using the “Jin xiu” to counting the days by Sidereal Calendar and it constitute the special words for calendar after many years. There are 28 special words by Sidereal Calendar in the Hmong Danjiang town, Leishan County. They are listed bellows:

  •   1.Jin hao (Ptarmigan, Jiaomujiao);2.Yongliu ( Water Dragon, Kangjinlong);3.Jinju (Bamboo Rat, Dituhao);4.Jinxiang (Civet, Fangritu);5.Meiha (Butterfly, Xinyuehu);6.Xiuliu (Tiger, Weihuohu);7.Xiuyou (Leopard, Jishuibao); 8.Crab, Doumuxie (Crab;Wooden crab); 9.Jinni (Buffalo, Niujinniu); 10.Wuyu (Wunv, Nvtufu);11.Jinnang (Rat, Xurishu);12.Baliu (Swallow, Weiyueyan); 13.Jinbei (Pig, Shihuozhu);14.Yongyou (Mountain Dragon, Bishuiyu) ; 15.Gonggen (Snail, Kuimulang); 16.Jinsa (Dog, Loujingou); 17.Jinyang (Pheasant, Weituzhi);18.Jingai (Chicken, Maoriji);19.Jinxie (Eagle, Biyueniao);20. Jinhuang (Monkey, Zuihuohou); 21.Jinxia (Otter, Canshuiyuan); 22.Gewa (Swan, Jinmuan); 23.Jinxian (Goat, Guijinyang); 24 .Gangshang (Hornet, Liutuzhang);25. Yanma (Broncho, Xingrima); 26.Gangye (Spider, Zhangyuelu); 27.Jinnuo (Snake,Yihuoshe); 28. Ganggong (Earthworm, Zhenshuiyin).

  •   There is a regulation for the special words that we should add an character called “Jin” for the singe name of a constellation for progressing. While ,the double name of the constellation we can call it directly. Obviously, the words above can’t be attributed to the type of E-jin, but it is the basis of E-jin. (PS: Jiaomujiao, Kangjinlong , Dituhao, Fangritu, Xinyuehu, Weihuohu, Weihuohu, Doumuxie, Niujinniu, Nvtufu, Xurishu, Weiyueyan, Shihuozhu, Bishuiyu, Kuimulang, Loujingou, Weituzhi, Maoriji, Biyueniao, Zuihuohou, Canshuiyuan, Jinmuan, Guijinyang, Liutuzhang, Xingrima, Zhangyuelu, Yihuoshe, Zhenshuiyin are the members of the 28 constellations in Chinese myth.)

  •   苗族历法埃进部份结构图(版权作品)

      Parts of the structure of the Hmong calendar E-jin (copyright works)

  •   苗族埃进是黔东方言苗族的杰作。它由三轮28宿配7轮12生肖组成84个历辞,依次为:1.虎雷鸟;2.猫水龙;3.龙竹鼠;4.蛇狸猫;5.蚕蝴蝶;6.羊进虎;7.猴进豹;8.鸡螃蟹;9.狗水牛;10.猪婺妪;11.鼠进鼠;12.牛进燕;13.虎进猪;14.猫山龙;15.龙螺蛳;16.蛇进狗;17.蚕进雉;18.羊进鸡;19.猴进鹰;20.鸡猿猴;21.狗水獭;22.猪天鹅;23.鼠进羊;24.牛蚂蜂;25.虎野马;26.猫蜘蛛;27.龙进蛇;28.蛇蚯蚓;29.蚕进雷;30.羊水龙;31.猴竹鼠;32.鸡狸猫;33.狗蝴蝶;34.猪进虎;35.鼠进豹;36.牛螃蟹;37.虎水牛;38.猫婺妪;39龙进鼠;30.蛇进燕;41.蚕进猪;42.羊山龙;43.猴螺蛳;44.鸡进狗;45.狗进雉;46.猪进鸡;47.鼠进鹰;48.牛猿猴;49.虎水獭;50.猫天鹅;51.龙进羊;52.蛇蚂蜂;53.蚕野马;54.羊蜘蛛;55.猴宿蛇;56.鸡蚯蚓;57.狗进雷;58.猪水龙;59.鼠竹鼠;60.牛狸猫;61.虎蝴蝶;62.猫进虎;63.龙进豹;64.蛇螃蟹;65.蚕水牛;66.羊婺妪;67.猴进鼠;68.鸡进燕;69.狗进猪;70.猪山龙;71.鼠螺蛳;72.牛进狗;73.虎进雉;74.猫进鸡;75.龙进鹰;76.蛇猿猴;77.蚕水獭;78.羊天鹅;79.猴进羊;80.鸡蚂蜂;81.狗野马;82.猪蜘蛛;83.鼠进蛇;84.牛蚯蚓。

  •   The Hmong E-jin is the masterpiece of the QianDong dialect, which is an branch of the Hmong languages, the others are Xiangxi and ChuanQianDian. The Hmong E-jin has 84 special words for the Hmong calendar and it consists of three rounds of 28 Constellations and seven rounds of 12 Chinese Zodiacs, they are in order as follows with two patterns of “an animal with single Chinese character+ another kind of animal which has double Chinese characters” and “ an animal with single Chinese character +the Chinese character “进(Jin)”+another animal which has a single Chinese character.”

  •   1.Huleiniao, 2.Maoshuilong, 3.Longzhushu, 4.Shelimao, 5.Canhudie, 6.Yangjinhu, 7.Houjinbao, 8.Jipangxie, 9.Goushuiniu, 10.zhuwuy, 11.Shujinshu, 12.Niujinyan, 13.Hujinzhu, 14.Maoshanlong, 15.Longluoshi, 16.Shejingou, 17.Canjinzhi, 18.Yangjinji, 19.Houjinying, 20.Jijihou, 21.Goushuita, 22.Zhutian e, 23.Shujinyang, 24.Niumafeng, 25.Huyema, 26.Maozhizhu, 27.Longjinshe, 28.Sheqiuyin, 29.Canjinlei, 30.Yangshuilong, 31.Houzhushu, 32.Jilimao, 33.Gouhudie, 34.Zhujinhu, 35.Shujinbao, 36.Niupangxie, 37.Hushuiniu, 38.Maowuyu, 39.Longjinshu,40.Shejinyan,41.Canjinzhu,42.Yangshanlong, 43.Houluoshi, 44.Jijingou, 45.Goujinzhi, 46. Zhujinji, 47.Shujinying, 48.Niuyuanhou, 49.Hushuita, 50.Maotian e, 51.Longjinyang, 52.Shemafeng, 53.Canyema, 54.Yangzhizhu, 55.Houxiushe, 56.Jiqiuying, 57.Goujinlei, 58.Zhushuilong, 59.Shuzhushu, 60.Niulimao, 61.Huhudie, 62.Maojinhu, 63.Longjinbao, 64.Shepangxie, 65.Canshuiniu, 66.Yangwuyu, 67.Houjinshu, 68.Jijinyan, 69.Goujinzhu, 70.Zhushanlong, 71.Shuluoshi, 72.Niujingou, 73.Hujinzhi, 74.Maojinji, 75.Longjinying, 76.Sheyuanhou, 77.Canshuita, 78.Yangtian e, 79.Houjinyang, 80.Jimafeng, 81.Gouyema, 82.Zhuzhizhu,83. Shujinshe, 84.Niuqiuying.

  •   也许,有人要问苗族埃进为什么要用12生肖配28宿?历辞结构有什么意义?为什么是84个历辞循环递进?带着这些问题,笔者询访了国章。他明确回答如下:

  •   There are still some questions listed. Why the Hmong E-jin is constituted by 12 Chinese Zodiacs and 28 Constellations? What’s the meaning of the special words for Hmong calendar? Why are the 84 special words for Hmong calendar to cycling and progressing? The author interviewed Li Guozhang with these questions above and he answered clearly as follows:

  •   ㈠用12生肖纪年,以12年为周期终而复始,是木星历。蝴蝶妈妈从枫木芯中出生,说明苗族先民曾经使用木星历。此木星历即枫木星历。

  •   (ⅰ) The calendar based on the 12 Chinese Zodiacs is the Jupiter Calendar with 12 years for a cycling. The birth of the butterfly mother from the maple core indicates that the Hmong ancestors have used the Jupiter calendar before. The Jupiter Calendar is the Maple Jupiter Calendar.

  •   ㈡用12生肖配28宿,生肖在前星宿在后,构成历辞纪年,是标记某年木星运所处的星空位置。

  •   (ⅱ) The constitution of special words for Hmong calendar usually with 12 Chinese Zodiacs as former parts and 28 Constellations as latter parts. It is the location of the Jupiter in the year.

  •   ㈢84年是天王星的运行周期。古人认为木星的运行周期是12年。84年是12的7倍数,与木星与天王星的运行周期汇合。在当代,木星的运行周期观察结果是11.86年,7周是83.02年,与天王星有0.98年差距。这个差距在黄道星空为7.2度。古代由于观察技术条件受限,这种差距对古人来说就是聚会。因此,苗族埃进说的是天王星历,是用木星历标识星空记载的天王星历。

  •   (iii) The cycling round of the Uranus is eighty-four years, while the ancestors insist that the cycling round of the Jupiter is twelve years, eighty-four is seven times to twelve, which is converged with the cycling round of Uranus and Jupiter. Nowadays, after times observation of the Jupiter, the cycling round of the Jupiter is 11.86years and 83.02 years for seven rounds, it has 0.98 years from Uranus and the gap is 7.2 degrees in the ecliptic plane. The ancestors almost regardless the gap, because of the astronomical devices is limited in ancient time. Therefore, the Hmong E-jin refers to the Uranus Calendar, which is recorded the sky according to Jupiter Calendar.

  •   在采访中,笔者问国章:“你是怎样知晓这些数据和历法呢?”

  •   In the interview, the author asked Li Guozhang a question as follows, “How do you know these data and calendars?”

  •   他有趣地说:“我是读天书读出来的!”

  •   “I have read the book of heaven.” He said with a humorous tone.

  •   问:“你读哪里的天书?或哪种天书?”

  •   Q: Where did you get the book of heaven? Which kind book of heaven did you have read?

  •   答:“分布在天穹中的自然符号叫天书。太阳系的边边有无穷无尽的天书。天穹中的星星分布不均,有明有暗,就是一部古往今来的天书。28宿就分布在赤道附近。28宿是苗族先民智者读出来的天书,是中华先贤认识宇宙的杰作!研读28宿天书是从事创世历法研究的必修课!”

  •   A: The natural symbols distributed in the sky are called the Book of Heaven. There are endless books of heaven on the edge of the solar system. The stars in the sky are unevenly distributed, there is light and dark, it is a book of heaven from ancient times to the present. The Hmong 28 constellations are located near the equator and it is the book of heaven that read by the wise man of the Hmong ancestors. Besides, the Hmong 28 constellations are the masterpiece for the Chinese sages to explore the universe and the compulsory course for the one who is going to study the Genesis Calendar.

  •   问:“你原是一名政法干警,怎么感兴趣研读28宿天书来呢?”

  •   Q: Why did you resign from the political committee and taking part in the research for the Hmong 28 constellation calendar?

  •   答:“28宿天文历法在人类文明史中是第一学。法律首先是自然法,它由第一学衍生。由于28宿天文历法一产生,就以创世神话与敬授民时的巫觋文化为载体,人们感到神秘,学术研究与文化解读基本上是一片空白。由于极少有学者涉足,想涉足研究的也有诸多困难,特别是语言和文化习俗体会与感悟上的困难。因为28宿天文历法涉及到人类文明史,特别是中华创世文明史,于是我就自觉或不自觉地把它当成了责任,当成了大脑必不可少的消遣活动。”

  •   A: The Hmong 28 constellation calendar is the first course in the history of human civilization. The natural regulations should be ranked firstly, which is derived from the first course. It is mysterious to the Hmong people as for the Hmong 28 constellation calendar is based on the myth of creation and the culture of Hmong witch in its origination which is blank in academic research and cultural records before. There are very few scholars involved in the research for this topic because of the difficulties, especially in the understanding of language and cultural customs. Though the Hmong 28 constellation calendar involves the history of human civilization, especially the history of Chinese civilization for creation, Li Guozhang regards it as a responsibility to find it and record it and as an essential pastime of the brain.

  •   问:“你是如何读天书呢?有老师教吗?”

  •   Q: How did you read the book of heaven? Are there any teachers?

  •   答:“在每天夜间,在人们睡着的时候,我的灵魂自觉不自觉地从老家的护寨枫树爬上去天穹,飘到月宫邀请仰阿莎一起漫步到木星、天王星轨道广阔的空域,读天书读出来的!看见苗族埃进散落在大神的口语中,仰阿莎教我捡拾回来。”

  •   A: I read the book of heaven in every night when people are asleep and my soul will go to the sky from the big maple tree in hometown and invite the Hmong beauty YangAsha whom lived in the Moon Palace to stroll together to the fields of Jupiter and Uranus. There are no teachers to give lessons and read alone. YangAsha taught me to restudy the course when the Hmong E-jin was scattered in the mouth of the Gods.

  •   问:天王星是1781年3月13日,由威廉·赫歇耳爵士使用望远镜发现的行星。这得到了世界天文学界的认同。你说苗族早就发现并制订了天王星历?天文学界认可吗?

  •   Q: Uranus is a planet discovered by the knight called Sir William Herschel whom using a telescope on March 13, 1781. The discovery was recognized by the World Astronomy Community. Did the World Astronomy Community agree with your opinion that the Hmong had discovered and developed the Uranus calendar long ago?

  •   答:与水星、金星、火星、木星、土星五大行星相比,在晴朗的天穹,天王星的亮度也是肉眼可见的。这就不能排除以观察星象为天职的中华先贤、中华天王发现天王星的可能性。苗族的埃进是由贾理辞记载,并非是我创造出来,信也罢,不信也罢,反正埃进是苗族最具特色的独一无二的历法,在世界历史上,是民族的,也就是世界的,谁也抹不掉!

  •   A: Compared with the five planets Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, the brightness of Uranus is also visible to the naked eye on a clear sky. This is the evidence to show the possibility for discovering the Uranus by the Chinese sages and the astronomical fans who are interested in astronomic observation. The Hmong E-jin was recorded by the Chinese man Jiali, not Li Guozhang, no matter believe it or not, E-jin is the most significant and unique calendar created by Hmong which is actually exist in the world and no one can deny the fact.

  •  四、感悟仰阿莎神话真谪

  •   Ⅳ. Appreciating the truth of the myth of the Hmong beauty YangAsha

  •   仰阿莎作为是古代苗族民众在生活文化和生活世界里传承、传播、共享的以太阳、月亮天体和自然界天象、自然物、动植物拟人化创作的传统诗歌和语辞艺术,流传于黔东南苗族地区。这种艺术有一个由日月纠纷故事和神话情节演绎发展,到人物美化定型的历史过程。按使用场合,分为故事、诗歌、理辞三种表述形式。都是讲述美神仰阿莎由水井出生,长大后先嫁太阳,后改嫁月亮的婚姻纠葛。最后经理老调处,太阳白天行,月亮夜晚走,各行各的路,各走各的道。

  •   YangAsha who is the beauty in Hmong legend as the symbol of the Sun, the Moon, the Celestial Phenomena, the nature, the animal which were created for the Hmong culture both in Hmong poetry and Hmong literature and passing on generation after generation. YangAsha is an image created from the Hmong myth whose plots started from the disputes between the God of Sun and the God of Moon to the image YangAsha and finally known for the Hmong regions in the southeastern Guizhou for thousands of years. According to the use of the occasions, there are three forms of literary for the myth of YangAsha, stories, poetry and rhetorical words which were about the plots to tell the birth of YangAsha and her marriages whom born in the well, married to the God of Sun for the first and then to the God of Moon later, in order to solve the disputes between the two Gods, she was accompanied by the God of Sun in the daytime and she stayed with the God of Moon in the nighttime after the mediation of the Hmong authoritative old man called Lilao.

  •   李国章设计注册商标(版权作品)

      The registered trademark designed by Li Guozhang (copyright work)

  •   苗语“仰”狭义即船,广义即年。“阿莎”意即清水、井水、凉水。仰阿莎苗语意为清水姑娘、井水姑娘或凉水姑娘。若将“仰”译为船或年,则变成了井泉物候历或年历的名词。若与日月结合,则成了太阳历和月亮历,以及阴阳合历的名称。因此,除了地理先生和理老、牧童诗人外,认为《仰阿莎》主人公仰阿莎是一种物候事象,太阳、月亮的天体原型以及主要配角人物也是自然天象、自然物和动植物。因此,它叙述的是天理,铺陈的是天道,是苗族先民借用婚姻家庭关系表述历法,也是物候历、太阳历、月亮历到木星历——埃进历发展到与天王星84个埃进周期年的通俗神话。《仰阿莎》阐述的天文历法与农耕稻作、苗年节日、生育女性生理周期同一律主题,是一条有始无终的天地人农耕合历法理。农历是朔望月阴阳合历。其前身是上元太初历,历元为公元前4721年。这是中原民族开始行用阴阳合历的年份。作为稻作民族,苗族先民行用阴阳合历的年份肯定还要早。由于故事情节生动,思想内容承载天理,因而流传甚广,几乎家喻户晓,著名的歌手都会唱其诗,有名的理老都会诵其词,作为调处婚姻关系的自然法则,被誉为最美丽的神话诗歌。

  •   In Hmong language, “Yang” means a ship in a narrow sense and a year in a generalized sense, while “Asha” means the clean water, well water and the cold water which were stands for purity in Chinese. YangAsha means the pure girl in Hmong language. If you translate “Yang” into a ship or a year, it becomes a noun for the Phenological Calendar of the wellspring or the Single-page Calendar. If it is related to the sun and moon, it is the Solar Calendar, the Lunar Calendar or the Yin-yang Calendar. Therefore, the myth, YangAsha, is the phenology and the images appeared with not a real man both in lead and supporting roles except for the images like master of Yin-yang, authoritative old man in Hmong and the shepherd boy, the unreal men were the sun and moon, the nature and astronomy, the plantings and animals. We can infer that it states the principles of nature and emphasis on the doctrine of a man. It is a popular myth with the family relationship by the Hmong ancestors to illustrate the development of the Hmong calendars, from Phenological Calendar, Solar Calendar, Lunar Calendar, Jupiter Calendar to the development of E-jin and the 84 cycling years of E-jin with Uranus. The astronomical calendar stated by the myth YangAsha has the same theme with rice cultivation, Hmong festivals and the physiological cycle of a female, which were naturally existed in the world. The Lunar Calendar is the Synodic Yin-yang calendar, its predecessor was the Taichu Calendar in the year of Shangyuan, which was 4721BC and it is the year when the Central Plains people began to use the calendar. As the ethnic minority for the rice cultivating, the Hmong ancestors should be earlier to use the Synodic Yin-yang calendar. The mythology of YangAsha is known as the most beautiful mythical poetry widespread and well-known for most people due to its vivid storyline, sensible plots. Famous Hmong singers sing for the poetry and famed old Hmong men recite the literal words, they regard it as the natural regulations for harmony the relationship of marriages.

  •   这就是国章感悟仰阿莎神话的真谛,也就是国章对仰阿莎神话的破解。有据于此和故乡的文化氛围,2018年5月,李国章为其故乡碧岣苗寨策划了“天下仰阿莎文化之乡”这一名片,将其打造为旅游休闲度假古山庄。

  •   This is Li Guozhangs understanding of the true meaning of the Yang Asha myth, which is also his decoding of the Yang Asha myth. According to the cultural atmosphere in this place and his hometown, In May 2018, Li Guozhang planned the name card of The Hometown of YangAsha Culture for his hometown Bixun Hmong village, and built it into an ancient tourist resort.

  •  五、开发苗族天文工艺品

      Ⅴ. Development of Hmong Astronomical Crafts

  •   天人合一是中国古代的重要哲学思想,李国章认为,“天人合一”可以进一步表述为“天人地合历”。人在特定时空中生活,为了生存和进取,进而取得成就,需要与时俱进。于是,他意识到中国古代丰富的神话和创世历法、哲学思想,可以通过工艺品的载体,进行扩张与浓缩展现出来。于是,开办了苗族工艺品平台,注册了三皇五帝日月文化研究创意中心,其目的就是创世神话与历法等民族文化符号加载到苗族工艺品的设计与制作之中,进而实现“产业升级”,从而更好地弘扬苗族优秀的传统文化。

  • 经李国章修复的并适当添加的《斗为帝车》图

    The picture Dou for the Emperor Vehicle restored by Li Guozhang

    The unity of man and nature is an important philosophical thought in ancient China. Li Guozhang believes that "the unity of man and nature" can be further expressed as "the unity of man and calendar ".People should keep up with the times as they lived in a specific time and they are striving for surviving, progressing and then achieving. Therefore, Li Guozhang realized that the rich myths, philosophy and the specific calendars can be spread by the carrier of handicrafts. Thus, he set up the platform for Hmong crafts and registered the Cultural Research and Creative Center of the Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns for the purpose of loading ethnic cultural symbols such as creation myth and calendar into the design and production of Hmong handicrafts, so as to achieve "industrial upgrading" and better carry forward the excellent traditional culture of Hmong nationality.


    It can be shown by a model no matter the universe how large is, while the space-time can be shown by a picture no matter how complicated is. Hmong arts and crafts often use concrete patterns and things to express the abstract concept of space and time. Li Guozhang believes that this cultural connotation is a major advantage and characteristic of Hmong arts and crafts design.


    Li Guozhang indicates that the ancient Ten Months Solar Calendar in Hmong is similar to the Han. The Ten Months Solar Calendar is counting the month with five birds called Fengniao Bird, Xuanyan Bird, Bozhao Bird, Qingniao Bird, Danniao Bird and five cooers which called Zhujiu Cooer, Qiaojiu Cooer, Shijiu Cooer, Shuangjiu Cooer, Gujiu Cooer. Taking the famous portrait brick of the Han Dynasty, Dou for the Emperor Vehicle, for example, it is a picture using the Yunniao Bird as the wheel , directing the way by the Fengniao Bird and the flying Xunyan Bird. If we use the Ten Months Solar Calendar for the thinking way to interpreter the activities of the emperor in ancient time, we can infer that the month for the parade in the picture is the month of Fengniao Bird which is January according to the Ten Months Solar Calendar and corresponding to the Gregorian Calendar of December 22th to January 27th. If someone wants to embroidery for colors, the early autumn color should be based on. The picture also illustrates that the emperor in the central is a bird man who is a wiser and follows the regulation of the harmony among the humans, nature and timing.



    The Hmong Crafts Platform  logo on Mobile Phone Terminal (APP) which designed by Li Guozhang


    From this point of view, Li Guozhang is a conscious explorer for the Chinese Genesis Calendar and an interpreter for the genesis mythology. Thus, he is a folk literature artist.


    The author believes that the Hmong crafts, Hmong crafts website, the biggest publishing platform of the Hmong crafts with bilingual information will be better and more unique on the condition of the guarantee of the background networks, the supporting of the teamwork of the Three Emperors and Five Sovereigns, the one who is self-taught and can read the book of heaven in Uranus.

    ( 插图:展  理 )

    (Illustration by Zhanli)

    (英文:胡玉芳  审定:杨正文)



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